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ex_tpcb.c

/*-
 * See the file LICENSE for redistribution information.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1997, 1998
 *    Sleepycat Software.  All rights reserved.
 *
 *    @(#)ex_tpcb.c     10.26 (Sleepycat) 11/22/98
 */

#include "config.h"

#ifndef NO_SYSTEM_INCLUDES
#include <sys/types.h>

#include <errno.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#endif

#ifdef _WIN32
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/timeb.h>
#endif


#include <db.h>

typedef enum { ACCOUNT, BRANCH, TELLER } FTYPE;

DB_ENV       *db_init(char *, int, int, int);
void    hpopulate(DB *, u_int, u_int32_t, u_int32_t, u_int32_t);
void    invarg(int, char *);
int     main __P((int, char *[]));
void    populate(DB *, u_int32_t, u_int32_t, u_int, char *);
u_int32_t random_id(FTYPE, u_int32_t, u_int32_t, u_int32_t);
u_int32_t random_int(u_int32_t, u_int32_t);
void    tp_populate(DB_ENV *, int, int, int, int);
void    tp_run(DB_ENV *, int, int, int, int);
int     tp_txn(DB_TXNMGR *, DB *, DB *, DB *, DB *, int, int, int);
void    usage(void);

int verbose;
const char
      *progname = "ex_tpcb";                    /* Program name. */

/*
 * This program implements a basic TPC/B driver program.  To create the
 * TPC/B database, run with the -i (init) flag.  The number of records
 * with which to populate the account, history, branch, and teller tables
 * is specified by the a, s, b, and t flags respectively.  To run a TPC/B
 * test, use the n flag to indicate a number of transactions to run (note
 * that you can run many of these processes in parallel to simulate a
 * multiuser test run).
 */
#define     TELLERS_PER_BRANCH      10
#define     ACCOUNTS_PER_TELLER     10000
#define     HISTORY_PER_BRANCH      2592000

/*
 * The default configuration that adheres to TPCB scaling rules requires
 * nearly 3 GB of space.  To avoid requiring that much space for testing,
 * we set the parameters much lower.  If you want to run a valid 10 TPS
 * configuration, define VALID_SCALING.
 */
#ifdef VALID_SCALING
#define     ACCOUNTS     1000000
#define     BRANCHES          10
#define     TELLERS                100
#define HISTORY         25920000
#else
#define     ACCOUNTS      100000
#define     BRANCHES          10
#define     TELLERS                100
#define HISTORY           259200
#endif

#define HISTORY_LEN         100
#define     RECLEN                100
#define     BEGID       1000000

typedef struct _defrec {
      u_int32_t   id;
      u_int32_t   balance;
      u_int8_t    pad[RECLEN - sizeof(u_int32_t) - sizeof(u_int32_t)];
} defrec;

typedef struct _histrec {
      u_int32_t   aid;
      u_int32_t   bid;
      u_int32_t   tid;
      u_int32_t   amount;
      u_int8_t    pad[RECLEN - 4 * sizeof(u_int32_t)];
} histrec;

#ifdef _WIN32
/* Simulation of UNIX gettimeofday(2). */
struct timeval {
      long tv_sec;
      long tv_usec;
};

struct timezone {
      int tz_minuteswest;
      int tz_dsttime;
};

int
gettimeofday(tp, tzp)
      struct timeval *tp;
      struct timezone *tzp;
{
      struct _timeb tb;

      _ftime(&tb);
      if (tp != 0) {
            tp->tv_sec = tb.time;
            tp->tv_usec = tb.millitm * 1000;
      }
      if (tzp != 0) {
            tzp->tz_minuteswest = tb.timezone;
            tzp->tz_dsttime = tb.dstflag;
      }
      return (0);
}
#endif

int
main(argc, argv)
      int argc;
      char *argv[];
{
      extern char *optarg;
      extern int optind;
      DB_ENV *dbenv;
      u_long seed;
      int accounts, branches, tellers, history;
      int ch, iflag, mpool, ntxns, txn_no_sync;
      char *home, *endarg;

      home = NULL;
      accounts = branches = history = tellers = 0;
      txn_no_sync = 0;
      mpool = ntxns = 0;
      verbose = 0;
      iflag = 0;
      seed = (u_long)getpid();
      while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv, "a:b:fh:im:n:S:s:t:v")) != EOF)
            switch (ch) {
            case 'a':               /* Number of account records */
                  if ((accounts = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        invarg(ch, optarg);
                  break;
            case 'b':               /* Number of branch records */
                  if ((branches = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        invarg(ch, optarg);
                  break;
            case 'c':               /* Cachesize in bytes */
                  if ((mpool = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        invarg(ch, optarg);
                  break;
            case 'f':               /* Fast mode: no txn sync. */
                  txn_no_sync = 1;
                  break;
            case 'h':               /* DB  home. */
                  home = optarg;
                  break;
            case 'i':               /* Initialize the test. */
                  iflag = 1;
                  break;
            case 'n':               /* Number of transactions */
                  if ((ntxns = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        invarg(ch, optarg);
                  break;
            case 'S':               /* Random number seed. */
                  seed = strtoul(optarg, &endarg, 0);
                  if (*endarg != '\0')
                        invarg(ch, optarg);
                  break;
            case 's':               /* Number of history records */
                  if ((history = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        invarg(ch, optarg);
                  break;
            case 't':               /* Number of teller records */
                  if ((tellers = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        invarg(ch, optarg);
                  break;
            case 'v':               /* Verbose option. */
                  verbose = 1;
                  break;
            case '?':
            default:
                  usage();
            }
      argc -= optind;
      argv += optind;

      srand((u_int)seed);

      /* Initialize the database environment. */
      dbenv = db_init(home, mpool, iflag, txn_no_sync ? DB_TXN_NOSYNC : 0);

      accounts = accounts == 0 ? ACCOUNTS : accounts;
      branches = branches == 0 ? BRANCHES : branches;
      tellers = tellers == 0 ? TELLERS : tellers;
      history = history == 0 ? HISTORY : history;

      if (verbose)
            printf("%ld Accounts, %ld Branches, %ld Tellers, %ld History\n",
                (long)accounts, (long)branches,
                (long)tellers, (long)history);

      if (iflag) {
            if (ntxns != 0)
                  usage();
            tp_populate(dbenv, accounts, branches, history, tellers);
      } else {
            if (ntxns == 0)
                  usage();
            tp_run(dbenv, ntxns, accounts, branches, tellers);
      }

      if ((errno = db_appexit(dbenv)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n", progname, strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }

      return (0);
}

/*
 * db_init --
 *    Initialize the environment.
 */
DB_ENV *
db_init(home, mp_size, initializing, flags)
      char *home;
      int mp_size;
      int initializing;
      int flags;
{
      DB_ENV *dbenv;
      u_int32_t local_flags;

      /* Rely on calloc to initialize the structure. */
      if ((dbenv = (DB_ENV *)calloc(sizeof(DB_ENV), 1)) == NULL) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }

      dbenv->db_errfile = stderr;
      dbenv->db_errpfx = progname;
      dbenv->mp_size = mp_size == 0 ? 4 * 1024 * 1024 : (size_t)mp_size;

      local_flags = flags | DB_CREATE | (initializing ? DB_INIT_MPOOL :
          DB_INIT_TXN | DB_INIT_LOCK | DB_INIT_LOG | DB_INIT_MPOOL);
      if ((errno = db_appinit(home, NULL, dbenv, local_flags)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: db_appinit: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }

      return (dbenv);
}

void
invarg(arg, str)
      int arg;
      char *str;
{
      (void)fprintf(stderr,
          "%s: invalid argument for -%c: %s\n", progname, arg, str);
      exit (1);
}

void
usage()
{
      char *a1, *a2;

      a1 = "[-v] [-a accounts] [-b branches] [-h home]\n";
      a2 = "          [-m mpool_size] [-S seed] [-s history] [-t tellers]";
      (void)fprintf(stderr, "usage: %s -i %s %s\n", progname, a1, a2);
      (void)fprintf(stderr,
          "       %s -n transactions %s %s\n", progname, a1, a2);
      exit(1);
}

/*
 * Initialize the database to the specified number of accounts, branches,
 * history records, and tellers.
 */
void
tp_populate(env, num_a, num_b, num_h, num_t)
      DB_ENV *env;
      int num_a, num_b, num_h, num_t;
{
      DB *dbp;
      DB_INFO dbi;
      u_int32_t balance, idnum;
      u_int32_t end_anum, end_bnum, end_tnum;
      u_int32_t start_anum, start_bnum, start_tnum;

      idnum = BEGID;
      balance = 500000;

      memset(&dbi, 0, sizeof(dbi));

      dbi.h_nelem = (u_int)num_a;
      if ((errno = db_open("account",
          DB_HASH, DB_CREATE | DB_TRUNCATE, 0644, env, &dbi, &dbp)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Account file open failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }

      start_anum = idnum;
      populate(dbp, idnum, balance, dbi.h_nelem, "account");
      idnum += dbi.h_nelem;
      end_anum = idnum - 1;
      if ((errno = dbp->close(dbp, 0)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Account file close failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }
      if (verbose)
            printf("Populated accounts: %ld - %ld\n",
                (long)start_anum, (long)end_anum);


      /*
       * Since the number of branches is very small, we want to use very
       * small pages and only 1 key per page.  This is the poor-man's way
       * of getting key locking instead of page locking.
       */
      dbi.h_nelem = (u_int)num_b;
      dbi.h_ffactor = 1;
      dbi.db_pagesize = 512;
      if ((errno = db_open("branch",
          DB_HASH, DB_CREATE | DB_TRUNCATE, 0644, env, &dbi, &dbp)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Branch file create failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }
      start_bnum = idnum;
      populate(dbp, idnum, balance, dbi.h_nelem, "branch");
      idnum += dbi.h_nelem;
      end_bnum = idnum - 1;
      if ((errno = dbp->close(dbp, 0)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Close of branch file failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }

      if (verbose)
            printf("Populated branches: %ld - %ld\n",
                (long)start_bnum, (long)end_bnum);


      /*
       * In the case of tellers, we also want small pages, but we'll let
       * the fill factor dynamically adjust itself.
       */
      dbi.h_nelem = (u_int)num_t;
      dbi.h_ffactor = 0;
      dbi.db_pagesize = 512;
      if ((errno = db_open("teller",
          DB_HASH, DB_CREATE | DB_TRUNCATE, 0644, env, &dbi, &dbp)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Teller file create failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }

      start_tnum = idnum;
      populate(dbp, idnum, balance, dbi.h_nelem, "teller");
      idnum += dbi.h_nelem;
      end_tnum = idnum - 1;
      if ((errno = dbp->close(dbp, 0)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Teller file close failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }
      if (verbose)
            printf("Populated tellers: %ld - %ld\n",
                (long)start_tnum, (long)end_tnum);

      memset(&dbi, 0, sizeof(dbi));
      dbi.re_len = HISTORY_LEN;
      dbi.flags = DB_FIXEDLEN;
      if ((errno = db_open("history",
          DB_RECNO, DB_CREATE | DB_TRUNCATE, 0644, env, &dbi, &dbp)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: History file create failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }

      hpopulate(dbp, num_h, num_a, num_b, num_t);
      if ((errno = dbp->close(dbp, 0)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: History file close failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }
}

void
populate(dbp, start_id, balance, nrecs, msg)
      DB *dbp;
      u_int32_t start_id, balance;
      u_int nrecs;
      char *msg;
{
      DBT kdbt, ddbt;
      defrec drec;
      u_int i;

      kdbt.flags = 0;
      kdbt.data = &drec.id;
      kdbt.size = sizeof(u_int32_t);
      ddbt.flags = 0;
      ddbt.data = &drec;
      ddbt.size = sizeof(drec);
      memset(&drec.pad[0], 1, sizeof(drec.pad));

      for (i = 0; i < nrecs; i++) {
            drec.id = start_id + (u_int32_t)i;
            drec.balance = balance;
            if ((errno =
                (dbp->put)(dbp, NULL, &kdbt, &ddbt, DB_NOOVERWRITE)) != 0) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s: Failure initializing %s file\n",
                      progname, msg);
                  exit (1);
            }
      }
}

void
hpopulate(dbp, nrecs, anum, bnum, tnum)
      DB *dbp;
      u_int nrecs;
      u_int32_t anum, bnum, tnum;
{
      DBT kdbt, ddbt;
      histrec hrec;
      db_recno_t key;
      u_int32_t i;

      memset(&kdbt, 0, sizeof(kdbt));
      memset(&ddbt, 0, sizeof(ddbt));
      ddbt.data = &hrec;
      ddbt.size = sizeof(hrec);
      kdbt.data = &key;
      kdbt.size = sizeof(key);
      memset(&hrec.pad[0], 1, sizeof(hrec.pad));
      hrec.amount = 10;

      for (i = 1; i <= nrecs; i++) {
            hrec.aid = random_id(ACCOUNT, anum, bnum, tnum);
            hrec.bid = random_id(BRANCH, anum, bnum, tnum);
            hrec.tid = random_id(TELLER, anum, bnum, tnum);
            if ((errno =
                dbp->put(dbp, NULL, &kdbt, &ddbt, DB_APPEND)) != 0) {
                  fprintf(stderr,
                      "%s: Failure initializing history file: ",
                      progname);
                  if (errno < 0)
                        fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
                  else
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
                  exit (1);
            }
      }
}

u_int32_t
random_int(lo, hi)
      u_int32_t lo, hi;
{
      u_int32_t ret;
      int t;

      t = rand();
      ret = (u_int32_t)(((double)t / ((double)(RAND_MAX) + 1)) *
          (hi - lo + 1));
      ret += lo;
      return (ret);
}

u_int32_t
random_id(type, accounts, branches, tellers)
      FTYPE type;
      u_int32_t accounts, branches, tellers;
{
      u_int32_t min, max, num;

      max = min = BEGID;
      num = accounts;
      switch(type) {
      case TELLER:
            min += branches;
            num = tellers;
            /* FALLTHROUGH */
      case BRANCH:
            if (type == BRANCH)
                  num = branches;
            min += accounts;
            /* FALLTHROUGH */
      case ACCOUNT:
            max = min + num - 1;
      }
      return (random_int(min, max));
}

void
tp_run(dbenv, n, accounts, branches, tellers)
      DB_ENV *dbenv;
      int n, accounts, branches, tellers;
{
      DB *adb, *bdb, *hdb, *tdb;
      double gtps, itps;
      int failed, ifailed, ret, txns, gus, ius;
      struct timeval starttime, curtime, lasttime;
#ifndef _WIN32
      pid_t pid;

      pid = getpid();
#else
      int pid;

      pid = 0;
#endif

      /*
       * Open the database files.
       */
      if ((errno =
          db_open("account", DB_UNKNOWN, 0, 0, dbenv, NULL, &adb)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Open of account file failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }
      if ((errno =
          db_open("branch", DB_UNKNOWN, 0, 0, dbenv, NULL, &bdb)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Open of branch file failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }
      if ((errno =
          db_open("teller", DB_UNKNOWN, 0, 0, dbenv, NULL, &tdb)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Open of teller file failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }
      if ((errno =
          db_open("history", DB_UNKNOWN, 0, 0, dbenv, NULL, &hdb)) != 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: Open of history file failed: ", progname);
            if (errno < 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "returned %ld\n", (long)errno);
            else
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", strerror(errno));
            exit (1);
      }

      txns = failed = ifailed = 0;
      (void)gettimeofday(&starttime, NULL);
      lasttime = starttime;
      while (n-- >= 0) {
            txns++;
            ret = tp_txn(dbenv->tx_info,
                adb, bdb, tdb, hdb, accounts, branches, tellers);
            if (ret != 0) {
                  failed++;
                  ifailed++;
            }
            if (n % 1000 == 0) {
                  (void)gettimeofday(&curtime, NULL);
                  gus = curtime.tv_usec >= starttime.tv_usec ?
                      curtime.tv_usec - starttime.tv_usec +
                      1000000 * (curtime.tv_sec - starttime.tv_sec) :
                      1000000 + curtime.tv_usec - starttime.tv_usec +
                      1000000 * (curtime.tv_sec - starttime.tv_sec - 1);
                  ius = curtime.tv_usec >= lasttime.tv_usec ?
                      curtime.tv_usec - lasttime.tv_usec +
                      1000000 * (curtime.tv_sec - lasttime.tv_sec) :
                      1000000 + curtime.tv_usec - lasttime.tv_usec +
                      1000000 * (curtime.tv_sec - lasttime.tv_sec - 1);
                  gtps = (double)(txns - failed) /
                      ((double)gus / 1000000);
                  itps = (double)(1000 - ifailed) /
                      ((double)ius / 1000000);
                  printf("[%d] %d txns %d failed ", (int)pid,
                      txns, failed);
                  printf("%6.2f TPS (gross) %6.2f TPS (interval)\n",
                     gtps, itps);
                  lasttime = curtime;
                  ifailed = 0;
            }
      }

      (void)adb->close(adb, 0);
      (void)bdb->close(bdb, 0);
      (void)tdb->close(tdb, 0);
      (void)hdb->close(hdb, 0);

      printf("%ld transactions begun %ld failed\n", (long)txns, (long)failed);
}

/*
 * XXX Figure out the appropriate way to pick out IDs.
 */
int
tp_txn(txmgr, adb, bdb, tdb, hdb, anum, bnum, tnum)
      DB_TXNMGR *txmgr;
      DB *adb, *bdb, *tdb, *hdb;
      int anum, bnum, tnum;
{
      DBC *acurs, *bcurs, *tcurs;
      DBT d_dbt, d_histdbt, k_dbt, k_histdbt;
      DB_TXN *t;
      db_recno_t key;
      defrec rec;
      histrec hrec;
      int account, branch, teller;

      t = NULL;
      acurs = bcurs = tcurs = NULL;

      /*
       * XXX We could move a lot of this into the driver to make this
       * faster.
       */
      account = random_id(ACCOUNT, anum, bnum, tnum);
      branch = random_id(BRANCH, anum, bnum, tnum);
      teller = random_id(TELLER, anum, bnum, tnum);

      memset(&d_histdbt, 0, sizeof(d_histdbt));

      memset(&k_histdbt, 0, sizeof(k_histdbt));
      k_histdbt.data = &key;
      k_histdbt.size = sizeof(key);

      memset(&k_dbt, 0, sizeof(k_dbt));
      k_dbt.size = sizeof(int);

      memset(&d_dbt, 0, sizeof(d_dbt));
      d_dbt.flags = DB_DBT_USERMEM;
      d_dbt.data = &rec;
      d_dbt.ulen = sizeof(rec);

      hrec.aid = account;
      hrec.bid = branch;
      hrec.tid = teller;
      hrec.amount = 10;
      /* Request 0 bytes since we're just positioning. */
      d_histdbt.flags = DB_DBT_PARTIAL;

      /* START TIMING */
      if (txn_begin(txmgr, NULL, &t) != 0)
            goto err;

      if (adb->cursor(adb, t, &acurs, 0) != 0 ||
          bdb->cursor(bdb, t, &bcurs, 0) != 0 ||
          tdb->cursor(tdb, t, &tcurs, 0) != 0)
            goto err;

      /* Account record */
      k_dbt.data = &account;
      if (acurs->c_get(acurs, &k_dbt, &d_dbt, DB_SET) != 0)
            goto err;
      rec.balance += 10;
      if (acurs->c_put(acurs, &k_dbt, &d_dbt, DB_CURRENT) != 0)
            goto err;

      /* Branch record */
      k_dbt.data = &branch;
      if (bcurs->c_get(bcurs, &k_dbt, &d_dbt, DB_SET) != 0)
            goto err;
      rec.balance += 10;
      if (bcurs->c_put(bcurs, &k_dbt, &d_dbt, DB_CURRENT) != 0)
            goto err;

      /* Teller record */
      k_dbt.data = &teller;
      if (tcurs->c_get(tcurs, &k_dbt, &d_dbt, DB_SET) != 0)
            goto err;
      rec.balance += 10;
      if (tcurs->c_put(tcurs, &k_dbt, &d_dbt, DB_CURRENT) != 0)
            goto err;

      /* History record */
      d_histdbt.flags = 0;
      d_histdbt.data = &hrec;
      d_histdbt.ulen = sizeof(hrec);
      if (hdb->put(hdb, t, &k_histdbt, &d_histdbt, DB_APPEND) != 0)
            goto err;

      if (acurs->c_close(acurs) != 0 || bcurs->c_close(bcurs) != 0 ||
          tcurs->c_close(tcurs) != 0)
            goto err;

      if (txn_commit(t) != 0)
            goto err;

      /* END TIMING */
      return (0);

err:  if (acurs != NULL)
            (void)acurs->c_close(acurs);
      if (bcurs != NULL)
            (void)bcurs->c_close(bcurs);
      if (tcurs != NULL)
            (void)tcurs->c_close(tcurs);
      if (t != NULL)
            (void)txn_abort(t);

      if (verbose)
            printf("Transaction A=%ld B=%ld T=%ld failed\n",
                (long)account, (long)branch, (long)teller);
      return (-1);
}

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